A discussion paper by Amit Kumar, RIS, India.

I.n the recent times, many countries across the world have devised their national policies and strategies in the domain of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The primary aim of all these strategies/policies is to ensure a leadership position in AI while harnessing this technology for increasing their global competitiveness as well as for addressing their societal challenges and developmental needs.

Like many countries, both India and China have released their national policy/strategy on Artificial Intelligence (AI). These policies/strategies have charted out the vision, objectives, goals, instruments, and plans for the development of AI in the country. In the literature, there are studies on policies and strategies of different countries (see for example OECD, 2019; ORF, 2018; APFC, 2019; HolonIQ, 2020; Dutton, 2018), while OECD has launched an observatory on AI with information on policies1 . The approaches undertaken by the countries vary according to their priorities and aspirations. One would find some convergences as well as some divergences in these approaches. Same holds true for both India and China For a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the national AI policy or strategy of India and China, this discussion paper has attempted to undertake the overview and analysis within the following six components: Guiding Principle/Motivation; Overall Objectives; Strategic Goals; Key Tasks; Resource Allocation; and Supporting Institutional Architecture.

The objective of this discussion paper is to provide a comprehensive and in-depth overview and analysis of such policies/strategies in India and China while carrying-out a comparative analysis of them as well.

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